Many structural and social factors determine just how much opportunity for mobility exists in a society for an individual or group of individuals. Following are some of the important causes and factors of social mobility:
- Social change
- Urbanization and industrialization
- Transportation and communication
- Dissatisfaction from previous condition
Gender is one of the important factors of social mobility. In American society, males and females receive different types of socialization reading employment and .family. Until very recently, males took for granted that they were to be the primary wage earner and ere to assume overall responsibility for the family's financial stability. Females ware traditionally not encouraged to pursue a higher education or enter a career. Recently, there has been an increase in dual career families (families where both. wife and husband have careers) arid females in higher social statuses. Despite this change, however the opportunities that females receive for social mobility are still not equal to those of male.
A female's age at the time of marriage is also an important factor in determining the likelihood of social mobility. Research suggests that they younger the female is at the time of marriage, the lower the probability of her gaining upward mobility. Females and males may also achieve vertical mobility by marrying into a social class higher than their own.
Education is an important factor of social mobility. An individual's education is positively correlated with the income that he/she is likely to earn. Education increases social mobility by providing the individual with the skills necessary to enter the job market and to compete against other for a particular job. Most jobs require formal education provided by the school systems, although some jobs require experience that can only be acquired through work in the particular field. Occupational categories requiring a high level of education usually offer correspondingly higher salaries. Virtually all professions require a person to complete a given level of formal education prior to practicing that profession. In addition, the great majority of businesses require a person to complete a college education before entering the managerial level.
Both physical and mental change is necessary for social mobility. Social change brings improvement in every aspect of life i.e. social, political, educational and economic. Change in these aspects may leads to change in social status and position of an individual which is social mobility.